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A boiler is a closed vessel where drinking water or other liquid is heated. The liquid will not necessarily boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the term "furnace" is generally used if the reason is never to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating or procedures applications, including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power generation, food preparation, and sanitation.
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not used in wetted elements of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However, ferritic stainless is often found in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.
For a lot of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often extracted from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded structure, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode considerably slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers much superior to those of welded metal boilers.
Cast iron may be used for the heating system vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is usually to produce warm water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is utilized as a heat source for producing steam also, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised warmth exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.
there are two methods to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method
Immediate method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more useful or more common
boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= level of fuel use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)
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Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:
Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fireplace heats a partially filled water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.
Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to support the steam (steam space). This is the kind of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be kept completely surrounded by the water in order to keep the temperature of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which can be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be taken along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases go through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to the people of the gas or water variety.
Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a true amount of possible configurations. Usually the drinking water pipes connect large drums, the lower ones formulated with drinking water and the top ones vapor and drinking water; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high steam creation rates, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be made to exploit any high temperature source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/steam is included within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator where the tube is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is held so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .
1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the next manner: the firebox contains an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives, but have met with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Inside a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. These areas are assembled on site to generate the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop requirements and regulation rules. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, security and design standards.
Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up poorly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down vapor pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. As a result of this, steam is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising seed will suffer from range corrosion and formation. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can result in catastrophic reduction and failure of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.
A boiler which has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If give food to drinking water is sent into the vacant boiler then, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on connection with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by protection vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up drinking water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was created in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to assist in preventing this problem from taking place, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.
Superheated steam boiler
A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and further heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at much higher temperatures, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating herb because the bigger vapor heat range requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. There are several ways to circumvent this problem, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You can find benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: benefits in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may be practical restrictions in using moist steam also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to flee, the ruthless and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.
Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temp in this area is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a liquid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the heat of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler. Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.
Supercritical steam generator
Boiler for a power vegetable.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is no generation of vapor bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which vapor bubbles can develop. As the fluid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which turns the electrical generator that power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that time may be considered a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This results in less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the top limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the quantity of fire.
Security valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also called a view cup, water gauge or drinking water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located on the bottom of the boiler, and is sometimes opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to drive these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most found on a water boiler commonly.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only once makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat of the makeup water.
Hand holes: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Steam drum internals, a series of display screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn off the burner or shut down fuel to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown line: It provides a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float together with the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back again to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater collection. This can be suited to the comparative part of the boiler, just below water level, or to the very best of the boiler.
Top give food to: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly heated and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated steam, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry vapor.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Main steam stop valve:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Gas oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Other essential items
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
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